The Catholic Church has a group of main dogmas, some sacred ideas. (For example papal infallibility, the big boss can not err, because he speaks in the name of God).
Lutero and Calvinus began a movement of critic against the Catholic Church, they considered that the Catholic Church was corrupted and has gone far away of the original message of Jesus. This movement of reform in S.XVI was called -Protestantism-.
In England, in these age, the kings and queens gave steps with and against the protestanstism, for example, Henry VIII (1491-1547) broke the relations with the Papa, and he proclaimed himself head of the Church in England, but he mainted almost the catholic
dogma and hunted the protestantism in England. However, his song, favored Protestantism. This kind of dance contuined, and with the time, it was formed a kind of trend to equilibrium, radicals and ultra-catholics began to be ¨impop¨ in the Anglican Church.
In XVII began a movement inside the protestantism in England, The puritans (very influid for the ideas of Calvinus), they were called puritans, for their ideal of purity extract from the Holy Bible, from the old testament. They had some politicals ideas, for
example: The politcal power of the governess is based in the people, power is delegate in representatives elected by the people....
....this ideas was not very good for goverment of kings, and also they had a strict ideas about the life, they burned some theaters, the clothes that a good man must to wear, and a important reverence for the work, because only, if your bussiness are going
well, you can know if God is with you.
The most of then for pressures migrated to Holland and the North of American. In this ¨expulsion¨ they began to believe in that they were a group selected by God, the God's chosen people. The puritans in North America developed the Manifest Destiny, the beleif
that America was the promised land for God, in analogy, the jews also think that Israel is the promised land.
With this idea, and the idea of the work, they justified their expasion for the new territory, and the fights with the native population (in their mind, the indians didn´t work the land, they didn´t take care of the land.... they said: the land is for who works
Puritans were among others John Endicott, the first governor of Massachusetts, John Winthrop, the second governor of that colony, Thomas Hooker, founder of Connecticut, John Davenport, founder of New Haven, and Roger Williams, founder of Rhode Island. Even
as a Quaker William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania and Philadelphia, had Puritan influence had been educated as a teacher of this theological trend. Of course, the educational influence was essential as not in vain and later Harvard-Yale and Princeton, was
founded in 1636 by the Puritans.
So, The puritants were a kind of protestants, with some radicals ideas, (and althought Calvinus was supporter of theocracy, the puritants are near of the democracy, and also near of the capitalism system, the tradition catholic and protestant reject material
wealth, however, for a Puritan is a sign that God is with him, that God favors them).
A good book about all this is -The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism- Max Weber.