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Ordinary Weapon of Chinese Kungfu: Dao

Posted by Clarissa on 29. Apr 2010

刀是一种平直、细长、带尖、一面有刃的武术器械。由古兵器演变而来。据考证,旧石器晚期已出现了石刀。以后人们又制造了骨刀、角刀、陶刀,主要作为生产工具,同时也作为防御野兽袭击的武器。殷商时代已出现了作为兵器的铜刀,短的不到20厘米,可佩戴在身上;长的可绑扎在木柄上,作为战刀。由于刀灵活锐利,用刀可攻可守,在战斗中能发挥巨大作用,战时是兵士的重要兵器,平时是帝王战将随身佩带的防身武器。随着火器的普遍使用,冷兵器逐渐衰落,刀失去了作战兵器的作用,但作为武术器械的一种延续至今,为人们所喜爱。


Dao (knife) is a category of single-edge Chinese swords primarily used for slashing and chopping (sabres), often called a broadsword in English translation because some varieties have wide blades. In China, the dao is known as one of the four major weapons, along with the Gun (staff), Qiang (spear), and the Jian (sword), and referred to as "The General of All Weapons". Dao is actually a generic word used to denote any member of a family of single-edged, broad-bladed cutting or slicing tools, but in common, everyday usage means knife. The weapon, also known as dan dao (single knife) when just one is used, is thereby thought to be an adaptation of the kitchen knives common to Chinese cuisine. Dao also appears in the names of such polearms as the pudao and guan dao, indicating that their blades were primarily intended for slashing and cutting attacks rather than stabbing ones.

尽管刀的种类很多,但在构造上大体都包括刃、背、尖、盘、柄五部分。刀刃是刀的锋利部分,多呈外凸的弧形,有劈、砍、斩、抹等多种击法;刀背是刃的对边,较宽厚,多呈弧形或波浪形,可作挑、挡、挂等各种防护与反攻的动作;刀尖是刀的前尖,大多用于扎、刺等刀法;刀盘即握手前面的圆盘,起护手作用,也叫护手盘;刀柄是握手部分,长短不一。武术中的短刀属于短器械,刀柄很短,单手持握。柄的后面常系两块彩绸,称为刀彩,舞动时,可以生风添色。两手使用的长柄刀,属于长器械,演练时,双手持握。此外,还有一些多尖、多刃特殊形状的刀,如三尖两刃刀、麟角双刀等。刀术内容丰富多彩,千姿百态,仅在各地流传的套路就数以百计。每年全国性武术运动会参赛的套路也有数十种之多,其中常见的有梅花刀、太极刀、八卦刀、连环刀、少林刀等。刀术套路因所属拳种不同,练法和风格也不尽一致。如:八卦刀以走转为主,要求人随刀转,势势贯串;太极刀则要求柔和平稳,刚柔相济等。


While dao have varied greatly over the centuries, most single-handed dao of the Ming period and later, and the modern swords that are based (sometimes loosely) on them share a number of characteristics. Dao blades are moderately curved and single-edged, though often with few inches of the back edge sharpened as well; the moderate curve allows them to be reasonably effective in the thrust. Hilts are canted, curving in the opposite direction as the blade which improves handling in some forms of cuts and thrusts. Cord is usually wrapped over the wood of the handle. Hilts may also be pierced like those of jian (straight-bladed Chinese sword) for the addition of lanyards, though modern swords for performances will often have tassels or scarves instead. Guards are typically disc-shaped often with a cupped shape to prevent rainwater from getting into the sheath, and to prevent blood from dripping down to the handle, making it more difficult to grip. Sometimes guards are thinner pieces of metal with an s-curve, the lower limb of the curve protecting the user's knuckles; very rarely they may have guards like those of the jian. Other variations to the basic pattern include the large bagua dao and the long handled pudao.

 

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男声朗读 Male Voice
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词汇学习 Vocabulary
兵器 bīng qì
Weapons

关键词音频下载
武器,军事斗争中包含有各种杀伤力、破坏力的器械装置。
An object or arm (like knife, gun) used for fighting or attacking.
灵活 líng huó
Nimble

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快捷,不死板,不拘泥于固有模式,善于变通
Nimble means be able to move and use easily and quickly.
战斗 zhàn dòu
Fighting

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泛指斗争。
Fighting here is refers to all kinds of battle against to enemies.
锋利 fēng lì
Sharp

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头尖或刃薄,容易刺入或切入物体。
Sharp means something has fine point or edge can cut or rip into something.
 



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